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Valorile independena (la toate grupurile etnice), stimularea (la tineri) reprezint acea resurs social, ce necesit dezvoltare, aplicare practic n viaa cultural i socio-economic a rii. Dar pe ct acest potenial va gsi realizare n ara noastr, depinde de particularitile dezvoltrii socio-economice a instituiilor Moldovei.

n articolul scris de Caunova N. Imaginea etnic a romilor la etapa contemporan se analizeaz rezultatele empirice ale cercetrilor percepiei sociale a grupei romilor. Rezultatele studiului stereotipului etnic privind romii, arat, c heterostereotipul romilor la adolesceni este ambivalent, contradictoriu, slab pozitiv i caracteristicile negative se contopesc cu cele pozitive.

Aceasta ne vorbete despre aceea, c adolescenii cunosc slab grupul romilor i n marea majoritate, sunt distanai de ei. Elevii presupun, c romii i aduc aportul ntr-o msur mai mic n dezvoltarea i soluionarea relaiilor normale, iar problemele i conflictele apar din cauza c romii nu doresc sa ajung la un compromis, i pstreaz distana n relaiile interpersonale. n reprezentrile romilor la adolesceni este evideniat ntr-o msur mai mare orientarea ctre grup, respingerea interaciunii i un control social slab. Rezultatele anchetrii arat, c un aport mai mare n formarea reprezentrilor despre romi joac contactele externe, mijlocite, i nu experiena personal nemijlocit de comunicare i interaciune. Elevii claselor superioare diminueaz calitile exprimate de romi, orientate ctre interaciune.

Analiza influenei migraiei de munc asupra identitii etnice la gguzi este reflectat n articolul dnei Horozova L.F.

Influena migraiei de munc asupra identitii etnice la tinerii gguzi. Cercettoarea presupune, c migraia de munc va influena structura i coninutul identitii etnice n dependen de nivelul de identificare cu grupul su i atitudinea fa de migraia de munc. n studiu au luat parte 326 respondeni, cu vrsta cuprins ntre 18-25 ani. Grupurile etnice gguzi i bulgari. Datele empirice, obinute n rezultatul anchetrii au artat c 62,27% de tineri sunt gata s fie inclui n procesul migraiei de munc; 19, 63% din tineri nu doresc s plece peste hotare, i nu s-au determinat 18,1 %. Cercettoare concluzioneaz c tinerii din Gguzia au tendine de includere n migraia de munc. n rezultatul studiului s-a determinat c n msura lurii deciziilor de tinerii gguzi de a se include n procesul migraiei de munc, se micoreaz numrul de respondeni ce au emoii pozitive fa de grupul etnic propriu, se mrete criticismul i crete numrul de sentimente negative fa de grupul etnic propriu. Dac reieim din faptul c, identitatea etnic, este n primul rnd trirea identitii proprii cu grupul su, atunci tendinele evideniate de distanare emoional de grupul propriu, poate confirma presupunerea privind influena migraiei de munc asupra proceselor de identificare etnic n mediul tinerilor.

Articolul scris de Ivanova N. Particularitile formrii identitii etnice n mediul urban multicultural conine rezultatele studiului empiric, efectuate de elevii colilor din Chiinu cu instruriea n limba rus, incluznd i colile cu studierea limbii ucrainene ca obiect. Scopul studiului a fost de a marca particularitile formrii i nivelul de dezvoltare a identitii etnice n trei grupuri de vrst la elevi n dependen de apartenena lor etnic. Rezultatele au artat, c pentru copiii rui un indice difereniator de baz este limba, iar pentru ucraineni este naionalitatea prinilor. Ambele grupe includ identitatea moldoveneasc n matricea identitilor sociale, i reprezint o baz bun pentru formarea identitii civile n continuare.

Articolul Aspecte teoretice ale studierii simbolurilor etnoculturale este consacrat rolurilor simbolurilor n societatea multicultural n perioada de transformare. Autorul analizeaz fenomenul simbolului n diferite domenii tiinifice (culturologie, semiotica, psihologia, antropologia). Reieind din faptul, c simbolurile i miturile joac un rol deosebit n ideologia naional, autorul caracterizeaz simbolurile etnice i de stat i determin acele caracteristici, care le transform n resurse mobilizatoare puternice n anumite momente din istorie.

Simbolurile se refer nu att la nivelul raional, ct la cel incontient, fapt ce le transform ntr-un instrument ideologic i politic important. La fel, simbolurile necesit interpretare i depind de specificul situaiei. Simbolurile de stat trebuie s fie mprtite de toate grupurile etnice, din care este alctuit societatea civil.

n general, studiile teoretice i empirice n domeniul etnopsihologiei i etnologiei, incluse n culegerea tiinific, reflect particularitile dezvoltrii etnoculturale ale societii n perioada de transformare.

ABSTRACTS

The scope of the present book is to provide analysis of some recent empirical and theoretical research work done in the field of ethnology and ethnic psychology. The authors chose the following main directions of research: the processes of ethnic identification and the sphere of values of some ethnic groups; intergroup perception on the example of ethnic groups; theoretical aspects of ethnic and cultural symbols study; the influence of labor migration upon the process of ethnic identification of the young people.

The research of psychologist Irina Caunenco deals with the problems of typology of ethnic identity of Moldovans and the sphere of values of ethnic groups of Russians and Ukrainians of the Republic of Moldova.

In the article "Values of Russians and Ukrainians of the Republic of Moldova: individual level" the author analyses some results of an empirical research in the sphere of values of Russians and Ukrainians.

For this purpose the Schwartz method was used, the individual level.

The research was held during the years 2004-2008 among several age groups (teenagers, youth, grown-ups) with different social status (senior high school students, university students, working grown-ups) with the total sampling of 326 persons. The main characteristic for all ethnic groups was the priority of the values Conservation, SelfTranscendence and Openness to Change. For the group of senior high school students (Ukrainians and Russians) the values of the highest priority are Autonomy, Freedom, Self-Direction. For the Russian young people the prior value is Security, while for the Ukrainians it is Conformity. According to Schwartz, both of these motivation blocks are part of the value group of Conservation. This feature supports the inter-generational continuity: young people independent of their ethnic group give priority to the values that point at the stability and predictability of the world, what is typical for the states of Post Soviet area.

The next article "To the problem of ethnic identity typology of the youth of Moldova in the transforming society" the author analyses the results of a research held among Moldovans to identify the typology of their ethnic identity. 200 students from Chisinau aged 18took part in the research. The typology identification was based on

their ethnic stereotypes. Four groups were identified:

1. positive image of both in- and out-group (in our case the group of Russians) - the norm (41%);

2. positive autostereotype and negative heterostereotype - hyper identity (11%);

3. negative autostereotype and positive heterostereotype- hypo identity (12%);

4. negative autostereotype and heterostereotype - ethnic nihilism (8,5%).

The founded types of ethnic identity are further analyzed through cultural distance, axiological universal "individualism collectivism" and affiliation. The author utters the idea, that studying ethnic identity typology can serve as the base for forecasting the interethnic relations and the vector of the state's development in terms of nation-building.

The article of Natalia Caunova "Contemporary ethnic image of Roma group" deals with some results of socio-psychological research of Roma group ethnic image conducted among senior high school students. The research was carried out among 50 persons from Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. The stereotypical image of Roma consists of both positive and negative valuation and includes such characteristics as: "cunning", "persistent", "proud", "obtrusive", "sociable", "active". The attitude towards Roma is characterized by high emotional uncertainty, weak positive orientation. The axiological orientations to Roma are measured as well. The teenagers consider that Roma don't tend to trust power structures; that they are oriented to their ethnic group; they are open to changes, but at the same time closed for interaction with representatives of other groups.

The article of Larisa Horozova "The Influence of labor migration on ethnic identity of Gagauz young people" provides analysis of some empirical data on the problem of mindset on migration of the Gagauz and Bulgarian young people and its influence upon their ethnic identity. 326 students aged 18-25 participated in the research. It was revealed that the level of identification with the ethnic in-group, peculiarities of content and structure of ethnic identity are connected to the mindset and attitude towards the process of labor migration.

The ethno-affiliative tendencies prevail in both groups' representatives irrespectively of presence of the mindset to migrate. In general, positive attitude towards the ethnic in-group dominates, irrespectively on their attitude towards migration. But at the same time, the extent of affection to the ethnic in-group weakens in proportion to admitting the probability to migrate: attitude to the ethnic in-group becomes more critical, the positive feelings towards it decreases. All this proves that the mindset on inclusion in the process of labor migration can affect the identification process.

The article of Ivanova Nina Special features of the ethnic identity formation in multicultural urban environment represents some results of the empirical research hold among students of several schools in Chisinau with Russian as teaching language, including schools with teaching in Ukrainian language. Aim of the research was to define special features of formation and level of development of the ethnic identity in three age groups of students in dependence of their ethnic identity. The results showed that for the Russian children basic differentiating marker is the language, while Ukrainian children tend to base their ethnic identity on their family roots. Both groups include Moldovan identity in their identification matrix, what is a good resource of developing civil identity starting with primary school students.

The article "Theoretical aspects of studying the ethnocultural symbols" focuses on the role of symbols in multicultural society during transformational periods. The author provides analysis of the phenomenon of symbol from different aspects (cultural studies, semiotics, psychology, anthropology). Starting with the idea that symbols and myths play a special role in the national ideology, the author provides characteristics of ethic and state symbols and defines what features empower them on social level. Symbols act not only on the rational level, but even more on irrational, and this makes them an important instrument of politics and ideology. Moreover they need to be interpreted and depend on a special situation. To be functional state symbols have to be shared by all ethnic groups that form civil society.

RSUM

Cette collection scientifique vise l'analyse empirique et thorique des tudes de l'ethnologie et etnopsihologiei daujourdhui. Les auteurs ont concentr leurs recherches sur les points suivants: les processus de l'identification ethnique et le champ de valeur des groupes ethniques, la perception intergroupale fonde sur les groupes ethniques, les aspects thoriques des tudies des symboles ethno-culturelles, l'influence de la migration pour le travail sur les processus de l'identification ethnique des jeunes.

La recherche du psychologue Irina CAUNENCO traite les problmes de la typologie de l'identit ethnique des Moldaves et la sphre des valeurs des groupes ethniques de Russes et des Ukrainiens de la Rpublique de Moldova.

Dans l'article Les valeurs de Russes et des Ukrainiens de la Rpublique de Moldova : le niveau individuel, l'auteur analyse les rsultats d'une recherche empirique dans le domaine des valeurs de Russes et d'Ukrainiens. A ce but a t utilise la mthode Schwartz, niveau individuel.

La recherche a eu lieu pendant les annes 2004-2008 entre plusieurs groupes d'ge (adolescents, jeunes, adultes) avec diffrent statut social (lycens, tudiants, employes adultes) sur un chantillonnage total de 326 personnes.

La caractristique principale de tous les groupes ethniques tait la priorit des valeurs de "Conservation", "Dpassement de soi-mme" et "Ouverture au Changement". Pour le groupe de lycens (des Ukrainiens et des Russes) sont prioritaires les valeurs "Autonomie", "Libert", "Auto-orientation".

Pour les jeunes Russes la plus importante est la valeur "Scurit", tandis que pour les Ukrainiens, c'est la "Conformit". Selon Schwartz ces deux blocs de motivation font partie du groupe des valeurs de "Conservation". Cette particularit comprends la continuit intergnrationnelle: les jeunes, indpendamment de leur groupe ethnique mettent en vidence les valeurs de la stabilit et la prvisibilit du monde, ce qui est typique pour les Etats exsovitiques.

Larticle suivant, "Sur le problme de la typologie identit ethnique de la jeunesse de la Moldavie dans la socit en transformation", l'auteur analyse les rsultats de recherche faite parmi les Moldaves ayant le but de faire la typologie de leur identit ethnique. 200 tudiants de Chisinau ges de 18 25 ans ont particip cette recherche. La typologie a t base sur le

strotype ethnique. Quatre groupes ont t diffrentis :

1. image positive la fois de in- et out-groupe (dans notre cas, le groupe de Russes) - la norme (41%);

2. auto-strotype positive et htro-strotype ngative - l'hyper identit (11%);

3. auto-strotype ngatif et htro-strotype positif hypo identit (12%);

4. auto-strotype et htro-strotype ngatives les deux le nihilisme ethnique (8,5%).

Les types fonds sur l'identit ethnique sont ensuite analyses via la distance culturelle, l'individualisme-collectivisme" axiologique universel et l'affiliation. L'auteur met l'ide, que l'tude de la typologie d'identit ethnique peut servir de base pour la prvision sur les relations interethniques et le vecteur du dveloppement de l'tat en termes de construction de la nation.

L'article de Natalia CAUNOVA "L'image ethnique contemporaine des Roms" analyse certains rsultats de la recherche socio-psychologique destine l'tude de l'image du groupe ethnique des Roms (Tziganes) aux lycens. L'tude a t porte sur un chantillon de 50 personnes de Chisinau, Rpublique de Moldova. L'image strotype des Roms se compose de valuations comme positive aussi que ngatives et comprend des caractristiques telles que: ruse, persistant, fier, envahissante, sociable, active. L'attitude envers les Roms se caractrise par une grande incertitude motionnelle et une orientation positive faible. Les orientations axiologiques aux Roms sont mesures ainsi. Les adolescents considrent que les Roms n'ont pas tendance faire confiance des structures gouvernementales, qu'ils sont orients leur groupe ethnique, ils sont ouverts aux changements, mais en mme temps ferms pour l'interaction avec les reprsentants des autres groupes.

L'article de Larisa HOROZOVA "Influence de la migration de travail sur l'identit ethnique de la population des jeunes Gagaouzes" fournit une analyse de donnes empiriques sur le problme de mentalit sur la migration des jeunes Gagaouzes et Bulgares et son influence sur leur identit ethnique.

Dans la recherche ont particip 326 lves de 18-25 ans. Il a t rvl que le niveau d'identification avec les minorits ethniques en groupe, les particularits de contenu et la structure de l'identit ethnique sont lis avec la mentalit et l'attitude envers la migration de travail. Etno-affiliatifs tendances prvaloir des reprsentants des deux groupes indpendants de s'il ya tat d'esprit de migrer ou non.

Les tendances ethno-affiliatives prvalent aux reprsentants des deux groupes indpendamment du fait s'il ya tat d'esprit de migrer ou non. En gnral, prvale une attitude positive envers le in-groupe indpendamment de la migration. Mais dans le mme temps la mesure de l'affection au in-groupe affaiblit en proportion l'admission de la probabilit de migrer: l'attitude au l'in-groupe devient plus critique, les sentiments positifs pour eux diminuent. Tout cela permet de prouver que la mentalit sur l'inclusion dans le processus de migration du travail peut affecter le processus d'identification.

L'article de Nina IVANOVA "Particularits de la formation de l'identit ethnique en milieu urbain multiculturel" reprsente des rsultats de la recherche empirique parmi les lves de plusieurs coles Chisinau ayant le Russe comme langue d'enseignement, y compris les coles avec un enseignement en langue Ukrainienne. Le but de la recherche tait de dfinir les caractristiques particulires de la formation et le niveau de dveloppement de l'identit ethnique dans trois groupes d'ge des tudiants en dpendance de leur identit ethnique. Les rsultats ont montr que pour les enfants Russes l'lment de diffrenciation de base est la langue, tandis que les enfants ukrainiens ont tendance fonder leur identit ethnique sur leurs racines familiales. Les deux groupes incluent l'identit Moldave dans leur matrice d'identification, ce qui est une bonne ressource de dveloppement de l'identit civile en commenant par les lves des coles primaires.

L'article Les aspects thoriques d'tude des symboles ethnoculturelles met l'accent sur le rle des symboles dans la socit multiculturelle pendant les priodes de transformation. L'auteur fournit une analyse du phnomne de symbole via diffrents aspects (tudes culturelles, la smiotique, psychologie, anthropologie). En partant de l'ide que les symboles et les mythes jouent un rle particulier dans l'idologie nationale, l'auteur dcrit les caractristiques des symboles ethniques et d'Etat et dfinit quels sont les lments les habilitant sur le plan social. Les symboles agissent non seulement sur le plan rationnel, mais davantage sur l'irrationnel, ce qui les rend un instrument important de la politique et idologie. En outre, ils doivent tre interprts et dpendent de situation. Pour tre fonctionnelles les symboles de l'Etat doivent tre partags par tous les groupes ethniques qui forment la socit civile.

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