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Science in the modern information society VII Vol. spc Academic CreateSpace 4900 LaCross Road, North Charleston, SC, USA 2940 VII - ...

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Science in the

modern information

society VII

Vol.

spc Academic

CreateSpace

4900 LaCross Road,

North Charleston, SC, USA 2940

VII -

9-10 2015 .

North Charleston, USA

4+37+51+53+54+55+57+91+61+159.9+316+62+101+330

ISBN: 978-1519466693

VII - " ".

.

, .-. .

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Kniazeva E.D.

CITY AND CULTURAL STUDIES: SCIENTIFIC SYNTHESIS

German N.F.

DIFFERENCES IN CULTURAL PATTERNS AS THE GREATEST CHALLENGE TO INTERCULTURAL

COMMUNICATION

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Barsukov G.V., Mikheyev A.V., Zhuravleva T.A., Sidorov V.B.

WATERJET CUTTING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

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................ 108 Orlov V.I., Vislobokov A.I., Shabanov P.D., Marutkina E.A.

ANESTHETIC EFFECTIVE ON THE EXTERNAL SIDE OF NEURONS PLASMATIC MEMBRANE................ 113

   

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MAIN CATEGORIES OF INFLUENCE IN THE WRITING OF THE NOVEL NAMES

Polonskaya O.Y.

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATIVE CULTURE FORMATION OF POLICE OFFICERS BY

FOREIGN LANGUAGE

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[5] http://www.ntv.ru/novosti/1216363/ [6] http://www.gazeta.ru/science/news/2014/10/31/n_6611725.shtml.

[7] http://itar-tass.com/nauka/1435149.

[8] russian.rt.com/article/59143#ixzz3IqhX7QSk.

[9] itar-tass.com/politika/1590313.

[10] http://www.newsru.com/russia/01jul2014/putin.html.

   

CITY AND CULTURAL STUDIES: SCIENTIFIC SYNTHESIS

The city as the center of the material, spiritual, human resources has always been a subject of intense study of philosophers, historians, sociologists, and geographers. The findings are mainly dependent on scientific specialization, attitudes and methodological orientations of a particular scientist. Each new knowledge about the city as a complex one-piece organism replenished "piggy bank" of science and led to the release of a separate branch of research urban studies.

Despite the fact that urban studies comprehensive analysis and the problems of functioning and development of cities, its methods contribute to the understanding of the city in a simplified, more economical and geographical meaning [1]. V. M. Dolgiy and A. G Levinson in his article "Archaic Culture and the City" drew attention to the inadequacy of this approach in 1971 and raised a question about cultural studies of the city. We also believe that a fair argument that determining key motives of urbanization go beyond of economic or demographic analysis of the urban environment and are embedded in the culture of the studied area, and therefore "seems fruitful extension of the research unit of urbanism due at the expense of achievements of science of cultural cycle" [3, 102].

Actually, a cultural study makes its contribution to the study of cities actively from the early XX century. Among the foreign researchers of a problem of a city in the culture should be called such famous scholars as J. Baudrillard, M. Weber, A. Toynbee and O. Spengler. In their works, they have convincingly demonstrated the role of cities in the development of civilization and in death of the culture. L. Mumford, an American expert in the field of urban planning and urbanism, drew attention to the role of the subjective factor in the location of industry and empowering settlements by those or other features [6]. K. Lynch in monograph "The image of the city," concludes a five-year study of three cities Boston, Jersey City and Los Angeles. So, he developed the idea of a mental image of the city and mental maps, as well as introduced the concept of imageability and legibility environment [5].

Russian researchers such as I. M. Grevs and N. P. Antsiferov deemed it is necessary to consider the city as a result of communication and interaction of all elements of the culture. Understanding the complexity of the task, I. M. Grevs offers to explore the city systematic, by the complex of variety of disciplines and N. P. Antsiferov developing submitting of his teacher about the city as a living organism, offers a similarly consider the anatomy, physiology and psychology of the city. In the 20s of the last century were grounded first

methodological principles of cultural exploration of the city by Antsiferov.

Alternative cultural approach developed M. S. Kagan in his "Grad Petrov in the history of Russian culture". He proposed the concept of systematic study of cities across four factors: geographic, social status and nature of the principal activities of the citizens, the architectural appearance, the level of artistic life.

Formation of the Belarusian culturological thought in the context of the problems of the city began relatively recently. Despite the relative "youth" of urban studies in the cultural space of Belarus, has issued a number of fundamental works, such as "Cities of Belarus (the 60s of XIX-early XX centuries)", "Minsk hundred years ago" Z. V. Shibeko and others. At present . Klinov and O. M. Sokolova study the history and design of the urban cultural space. Earlier reviews of the Belarusian cultural cities can be found in the works of Z. Y. Kopysskoy, A. P. Gritskevich, A. P. Ignatenko, Y. V. Chanturia, A. P. Sapunov. In recent years, by modern Belarusian scientists a lot of attention is paid to the genesis and development of the semiotic space of Minsk. Indeed, in the framework of the semiotic approach "spatial environment of the city (houses, bands, fashion, newspapers, advertising, etc.) not just a change of the physical environment, and the change of sources of information, the transition to a new cultural environment. "Insiders" people can "read" his city " [4, 130].

Even from these few examples it is visible that the subject of studying of the cities represents special interest for science and opens new sides in case of research of an urban environment from a culturological analysis perspective.

View of a modern culturologist is intended to expand understanding of urbanization processes in society, and to show that you can not limit the coverage of the processes of production, of industrialization, of complexity of the social structure of society, of the growing globalization. Urban environment contains a powerful cultural potential, creating a historical memory of society and at the same time stimulating the emergence of significant cultural innovation, making the city an important social and cultural phenomenon.

Culturological approach gives us the opportunity to consider the city not only as a place of production and the satisfaction of material and spiritual needs of a man, but also as a center of attraction for the spiritual and theoretical human activity: art, philosophy, science, religion, language.

Many modern scholars agree that "the problem of overcoming of the excessive specialization and fragmentation in the understanding of the city partly may decide cultural studies" [2, 75]. To address those tasks which are in preservation of cultural heritage of the states today, in education of younger generations and in development of the efficient program of cultural policy, it is necessary not only to possess sufficient information on the volume of rural and city elements in culture, on a ratio of traditional and original, static and dynamic.

Cultural studies of a city aims to characterize the city as an entity, not reduced to the sum of the aspects studied by separate sciences (economic

   

geography, sociology, history) and to identify its socio-cultural entity that incorporates social, political, economic and mental phenomena in a synergistic unity.

   

1. Galushina, N. S. City As an Object of Cultural Studies: dis.... cand.

kulturol. sciences : 24.00.01 / N. S. Galushina. M., 1998. 153 p. [in Russian]

2. Gun, G. E. Urbanity and Artistic Culture of the City / G. E. Gun // Vestnik Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts. 2012. 1 (29). P. 74-77. [in Russian]

3. Dolgiy, V. M., Levinson A. G. Archaic Culture and City / V. M.

Dolgiy, A. G. Levinson // Problems of Philosophy. M., 1971. 7. P. 91in Russian]

4. Mastenitsa, E. N. Cultural Space of the City As a Subject of Study and the Object of Knowledge: an Interdisciplinary Approach / E. N. Mastenitsa // Petersburg studies: sat. scientific. art. Vol. 3. SPb.: Publishing. St.

Petersburg State University, 2011. P. 128-147. [in Russian] Lynch, K. The Image of the City / K. Lynch. Cambridge: The 5.

MIT Press, 1960. 194 p.

6. Mumford, L. The City in History: Its Origin, Its Transformations and Its Prospects / L. Mumford. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1961.

657 p.

   

In defining barriers to intercultural communication we always keep in mind that the more shared interpretations or shared experience or common cultural background its participants have the greater the level of mutual understanding. Shared interpretations lead to actions that are regarded as appropriate and effective behaviours. They are therefore very important and they result from the cultures collective assumptions about what the world is, shared judgments about what the world should be, deeply held expectations about how people should behave, and predictable behaviour patterns that are commonly shared.

Scholars call these unseen but shared expectations cultural patterns [2, 3, 4]. Cultural patterns refers to shared beliefs, values, norms, and social practices that are stable over time and that lead to roughly similar behaviours across similar situations [2, 85].

Cultural patterns are the basis for interpreting the symbols used in communication. If the cultural patterns between people are sufficiently different (as in the process of intercultural communication where participants represent cultures of different religions, languages, values, and other essential cultural elements), the symbols used in communicating will be interpreted differently and may be misunderstood in case people are not aware that no common set of behaviours is universally interpreted in the same way. Different actions can be regarded with different degree of favorability.

Despite their importance in the development and maintenance of cultures, cultural patterns cannot be seen, heard, or experienced directly. However, the consequences of cultural patterns are readily observable. We can state that cultural patterns are shared mental programs that govern specific behaviour choices; consequently, cultural patterns provide the basic set of standards that guide thought and action of people. Some aspects of this mental programming are, of course, unique to each individual. Even within a culture, no two people are programmed (following Hoffstede) identically, and these distinctive personality differences separate the members of a culture.

Beliefs, values, norms, and social practices taken together constitute the components of cultural patterns. People are taught them in the processes of socialization and enculturation.

Beliefs are a set of learned interpretations that form the basis for cultural members to decide what is and what is not logical and correct. Beliefs can range from ideas that are central to a persons sense of self to those that are more peripheral. M. Rokeach differentiates central and peripheral believes [5]. Central beliefs include the cultures fundamental teachings about what reality is and expectations about how the world works. Less central are beliefs based on or derived from the teachings of those regarded as authorities. Parents, teachers, and other important elders transmit the cultures assumptions about the nature of the physical and interpersonal world. Peripheral beliefs refer to matters of personal taste. They contribute to each persons unique configuration of ideas and expectations within the larger cultural matrix. A well-known example of a widely shared belief dates back to the time when Europeans believed that the earth was flat. That is, people knew that the earth was flat.

Cultures differ not only in their beliefs but also in what they value. Values can be defined as instructions or guidelines or cultural priorities or tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Because values are the desired characteristics or goals of a culture, a cultures values do not necessarily describe its actual behaviours and characteristics. However, values are often offered as the explanation for the way in which people communicate, serving as guiding principles in peoples lives [6, 272-278].

From culture to culture, values differ in their valence and intensity.

Valence refers to whether the value is seen as positive or negative. Intensity indicates the strength or importance of the value, or the degree to which the culture identifies the value as significant [2, 88]. For example, in USA the value of respect for elders is negatively valenced and held with a modest degree of intensity. Many U.S. Americans value youth rather than old age. In Korea, Japan, and Mexico respect for elders is a positively valenced value, and it is very intensely held.

It is obvious that in order to communicate successfully across cultures, we should study any particular culture to determine its most important values and each values valence and intensity.

Norms are the socially shared expectations of appropriate behaviours.

When a persons behaviours violate the cultures norms, social sanctions are usually imposed. Like values, norms can vary within a culture in terms of their importance and intensity. Unlike values, however, norms may change over a period of time (e.g. norms of dress code, topics of small talks), whereas beliefs and values tend to be much more enduring. Norms guide peoples interactions and to indicate how to engage in conversation, what to talk about, and how to disengage from conversations. Because they are evident through behaviours, norms can be readily inferred.

Social practices are the predictable behaviour patterns that members of a culture typically follow. Thus, social practices are the outward manifestations of beliefs, values, and norms. One type of social practice is informal and includes everyday tasks such as eating, sleeping, dressing, working, playing, and talking to others. Slurping ones food in Saudi Arabia and in many Asian cultures is the usual practice, and it is regarded favorably as an expression of satisfaction and appreciation for the quality of the cooking. But good manners in one culture may be bad manners in another; European Americans typically consider such sounds to be inappropriate [7, 91].

Another type of social practice is more formal and prescriptive. These include the rituals, ceremonies, and structured routines that are typically performed publicly and collectively: saluting the flag, praying in church, honoring the dead at funerals, getting married, and many other social practices.

However, we should keep in mind that individuals in a culture generally are socialized in ways consistent with the cultural-level tendencies, but some individuals in every culture learn different tendencies [8, 12].

Cultures can differ from one another, but within every culture there are individuals who vary from the cultural patterns most often associated with it. To explain both these cultural-level and individual-level differences, F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck (1960) developed the theory of value orientations offered four

conclusions about the functions of cultural patterns that apply to all cultures:

people in all cultures face common human problems for which they must find solutions;

the range of alternative solutions to a cultures problems is limited;

within a given culture, there will be preferred solutions, which most people within the culture will select, but there will also be people who will choose other solutions;

over time, the preferred solutions shape the cultures basic assumptions about beliefs, values, norms, and social practices the cultural patterns.

F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck describe five problems or orientations

that each culture must address:

1. What is the human orientation to activity?

2. What is the relationship of humans to each other?

3. What is the nature of human beings?

4. What is the relationship of humans to the natural world?

5. What is the orientation of humans to time? [9].

Each culture, in its own unique way, must provide answers to these questions in order to develop a coherent and consistent interpretation of the world. Cultures must select their solutions from a range of available alternatives.

Thus, a cultures orientation to the importance and value of activity can range from passive acceptance of the world (a being orientation), a preference for a gradual transformation of the human condition (a being-in-becoming orientation), or more direct intervention (a doing orientation). A cultures

solution to how it should organise itself to deal with interpersonal relationships can vary along a continuum from hierarchical social organisation ( linearity) to group identification (collaterality or collectivism) to individual autonomy (individualism). The available alternatives to the problem What is the nature of human beings? can range from Humans are evil to Humans are a mixture of good and evil to Humans are good. A cultures response to the preferred relationship of humans to the natural world can range from a belief that People are subjugated by nature to People live in harmony with nature to People master nature Finally, the cultures preferred time orientation can emphasise events and experiences from the past, the present, or the future.

Within any culture, a preferred set of solutions is chosen by most people.

However, not all people from a culture will make exactly the same set of choices, some people from each culture select other alternatives. Moreover, cultural patterns develop and are sustained. Over time, certain behaviours to solve particular problems become preferred, others permitted, and still others prohibited.

It is obvious that cultural patterns form the foundation for understanding of cultural differences and knowledge of them provides adequate interpretations in the process of intercultural communication.

References:

1. Hill, A.; Watson, J.; Rivers, D.; and Joyce, M.. Key Themes in Interpersonal Communication: Culture, Identities and Performance. Open University Press, NY, 2007.

2. Lustig, M. W., Koester, J. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures, 6th Ed. Pearson Education. Inc., 2010.

3. Martin, J. and Nakayama, T. Intercultural Communication in Context, 5th Ed.

McGraw-Hill, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., NY, 2010.

4. Samovar, L. A., Porter, Richard E., McDaniel, Ed. R. and Roy, C. S.

Communication between Cultures, 8th Ed. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012.

5. Rokeach, M. Understanding Human Values: Individual and Societal. New York: Macmillan, 1979.

6. Schwartz, Sh. H. Value Hierarchies across Cultures: Taking Similarities.

Perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 2001. pp. 268-290.

7. Dresser, N. Multicultural Manners; Essential Rules of Etiquette for the 21st Century, Rev. Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Willey, 2005.

8. Gudykunst, W. B. and Lee, C. M., Cross-Cultural Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003.

9. Kluckhohn, F. R. and Strodtbeck, F. L. Variations in Value Orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, 1960.

   

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Summary: Analysis of the few extant, monuments of monumental fresco painting, allows you to clearly and thoroughly present the history and culture of medieval population of the Crimea, to characterize the value of Christian traditions, to identify their variety of artistic, iconographic features and places of the specifics.

Basic concepts of article: fresco, Christianity, sacral art, spiritual heritage.

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